Exploring Fine-Tuning at Every Cosmic Level

Designed to the Core is the sixth book I’ve written on cosmic fine-tuning. It’s the only one of the six, however, where I describe and document fine-tuning for the existence of humans on all cosmic size scales.

Each chapter in Designed to the Core showcases astounding realities, discovered within the past few years, about the interior features of humanity’s home on all its size scales. Ultimately, my goal is to probe the meaning of what can be seen and measured. At no other time in human history has our knowledge of the heavens and Earth increased at such a rapid rate. In my own discipline of astrophysics, the knowledge base doubles every five years. I’m so grateful to my Creator that he placed me on Earth at the time he did and gave me the mind and technology that he did so that I can discover and understand—to a degree never before possible in human history—the glory of God revealed in the heavens.

Overwhelming Impression of Design
As I searched through the scientific literature in preparation for writing Designed to the Core, I was blown away by the recognition that, at every cosmic size scale, humans exist within an incredibly narrow time window and equally incredibly small space that permits our existence. The fact that all these relatively independent narrow time windows and spatial regions, for the first time in the universe’s history, simultaneously overlap one another defies any conceivable naturalistic explanation and testifies of the great care of the Creator for human beings.

Every astronomer and physicist I’ve engaged, regardless of their worldview, agrees that the universe is exquisitely fine-tuned to make the existence of life, and humans in particular, possible. As agnostic astronomer Paul Davies wrote in his book The Cosmic Blueprint concerning the features of the universe, “The impression of design is overwhelming.”1 The design Davies refers to is that the presence of intelligent physical observers in the universe (beings capable of measuring astronomical bodies and phenomena) requires that multiple characteristics of the universe fit within certain limited, fine-tuned ranges.

Fine-Tuning and the Fine-Tuner
Fine-tuning requires a shaping source. The greater the degree and pervasiveness of fine-tuning, the more capable must be the fine-tuner. Therefore, pursuing evidence of cosmic fine-tuning for humanity’s benefit has profound personal, philosophical, and theological significance.

If the observed fine-tuned designs prove to be of little or no consequence, then one could surmise that no intentionality or purpose is implied. On the other hand, if the observed fine-tuning is multifaceted and each facet is crucial for making human existence possible, then the fine-tuning source must be more than a mindless, impersonal force or process. The more numerous, specific, and purposeful the fine-tuned requirements, the more the required features reveal about the characteristics and identity of the fine-tuner.

Is Cosmic Fine-Tuning Meaningful?
Not everyone agrees, however, that the observed cosmic fine-tuning is meaningful. Many astronomers and physicists point out that for human observers the sample size of universes is one and always will be one. With a sample size of just one, skeptics argue that one cannot make a statistically significant argument for a personal, intentional fine-tuner. Who is to say that our universe is exceptional?

While the sample size limitation is true for universes, such is not the case for supergalaxy clusters, galaxy clusters, galaxies, stars, planets, moons, and comet belts. In each case, the sample size is in the millions or much greater. The fine-tuning argument for the existence and operation of the God of the Bible becomes far more compelling if one can demonstrate we live in an extraordinarily exceptional region of the cosmic web and that our supergalaxy cluster, galaxy cluster, galaxy group, galaxy, galactic arm, galactic bubble, galactic fluff, planetary system, comet-asteroid belt system, moon, and planet all possess unique, fine-tuned characteristics that make it possible for humans to exist and thrive.

If on all size scales, from the largest cosmic structures to the tiniest, one sees multiple characteristics that must fit within very limited fine-tuned ranges, then it becomes unreasonable for any rational person to deny that a personal, intelligent, intentional, purposeful Fine-Tuner exists. The argument for such a Fine-Tuner becomes all the more compelling if one can demonstrate that—at all cosmic size scales—the more we discover and learn, the stronger the evidence becomes for the existence and operation of this Fine-Tuner. This latter point parrots a theme in the Psalms and the book of Job: the more we learn about nature, the more evidence we will uncover for the supernatural handiwork of God.

Sharing the Excitement of Discovery
My wife, Kathy, will tell you I was on cloud nine doing the research for Designed to the Core. I couldn’t help but share with her my excitement and thrill at what I was reading in the latest scientific literature. The scientists writing the papers typically were silent about the philosophical implications of their discoveries. I couldn’t keep quiet. I had to write about it.

Everyone who has read the book so far has had the same experience I had in writing it. They were blown away by the astounding philosophical implications of the discoveries. My desire is that you, too, will learn of the exacting care that our loving Creator has taken to design a cosmos in such intelligent, exquisite detail. I also hope that your excitement will fuel discussions with others about their purpose in God’s grand cosmic design. 


  1. Paul Davies, The Cosmic Blueprint (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988), 203.